Learn the Language of Vaping

Vaping Glossary of TermsIf you’re new to vaping, or if you’re thinking of making the big switch from cigarettes to what we consider to be a better choice, there’s some terminology you’re going to need to know. Here are 18 catch phrases to boost your vaping vernacular now.

ANTZ – Anti nicotine tobacco zealots. You already know these people, they’re the ‘reformed smokers’ and their friends who preach the dangers of nicotine and tobacco. They’re also determined to undermine the rights of those who vape.

Atomizer (Atty for short) – This is the working part of a vaping device that converts e-liquid or juice to the vapour you inhale.

ADV (All Day Vape) – This is your go-to e-juice – the one you rely on to get you through your day.

B&M – This is a Bricks and Mortar vape store. These are beginning to spring up here and there, but isn’t it just easier to order your supplies online at Vapor Jedi?

Blank – An empty cartomizer that you fill with your fave e-juice.

Cartomizer – It’s a cartridge and atomizer combined, usually inexpensive and disposable – also known as a carto.

CASAA – Consumer Advocates for Smokeless Alternatives. This is a non-profit organization that campaigns for the rights of vapers. Please join and donate if you’re able.

Hit or Throat Hit – The sensation a vaper gets when inhaling.

Cigalike (cute name, right?) This is that cheap white fake ‘cigarette’ that’s for sale at your local convenience store. ‘Nuff said.

Dry Puff/Burn/Hit – Nasty, yuck, just yuck! It happens when there’s not enough e-juice in your atomizer. It will teach you to keep your juice topped up!

E-Juice or E-Liquid – This is the liquid that is vaporized when using an electronic cigarette. It comes in many wonderful ‘flavours’ – everything from Vanilla Cupcake to Menthol Tobacco.

Flooding – A gurgling sound plus diminished vapour equals too much e-liquid in your atomizer.

MG Strength – Milligram strength per millilitre (ml).  The percentage of nicotine contained within the e-liquid. For example, 8mg is 8mg of nicotine per ml = 0.8% nicotine. You’ll find what works for you.

Noob – A new vaper. You’ll only be one for about a week, vaping isn’t rocket science!

NRT – Nicotine Replacement Therapy. Vaping is now considered to be a successful component of NRT.

PV or Personal Vaporizer. It’s just another name for an Electronic Cigarette.

Stick Style – Any electronic cigarette that resembles   a traditional cigarette.

Sweet Spot – A satisfying vape.  To get it, you need a combination of these variables – voltage, wattage, resistance, and the flashpoint of the e-juice. Experience will lead you to it!

So … this list should get you started. Soon you’ll be a pro vaper – mixing your own e-juice flavours, eyeing new PV’s and buying them because they match your shoes or purse. Enjoy!

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How Much Nicotine Could Your Body Absorb Before You Overdosed?

Rudolf Kobert
“Rudolf Kobert” by S. Steenbock & Sohn, Rostock. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons.

The CDC warns smokers and e-cig users that an oral dose of about 50 to 60 mg of nicotine may be lethal to an adult human being weighing around 154 lbs (70 kg). In reality, the maximum limit was probably much higher than what’s previously calculated by a German pharmacologist in 1906. Incidentally, Herr Rudolf Kobert based these estimates on the dubious findings of two men who self-experimented with 4 mg of pure nicotine in the 19th century.

According to Bernd Mayer’s research, however, the standard limit for nicotine absorption in adults is probably around 30 to 60 mg, which is equivalent to ingesting five cigarettes or 10 ml of a diluted nicotine-containing solution.

More recent studies have shown that intravenous injection of 5mg of nicotine (equivalent to a 25 mg dose taken orally) lead to only mild symptoms of nausea and coughing.

Post-mortem examinations of people who have died from nicotine poisoning suggest that lethal doses of nicotine could be 20 times higher than the 60 mg limit.

But, neurologist and nicotine expert, Dr Jacques Le Houezec, thinks at least 500 to 1000 mg is a more prudent estimate. Meanwhile, nobody has figured out yet the maximum amount of nicotine in e-liquids that can be absorbed by the human body through inhalation before an adult of average height and weight experiences the typical symptoms of a nicotine overdose.

510N e-cigarette and e-liquids.jpg
“510N e-cigarette and e-liquids” by Lauri Rantala/Flickr. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

Contrary to popular belief, nicotine isn’t the primary cause of lung disease in smokers. Carcinogenic compounds in tobacco are very much to blame. Moreover, it’s equally fallacious to think that an e-juice is now a toxic fluid just because pure nicotine was added to the dilute solution. (Some people in the anti-vaping brigade seem to think so.)

Better err on the side of caution by wearing gloves, goggles, face mask, and apron when handling pure liquid nicotine. It’s so toxic that having a small amount of liquid nicotine absorbed by your skin would be enough to make you ill.

Mayer’s guest editorial for Archives of Toxicology was an interesting read. He ended the well-written short piece with the following proposal:

“…Frequent warnings of potential fatalities caused by ingestion of small amounts of tobacco products or diluted nicotine-containing solutions are unjustified, and need to be revised in light of overwhelming data indicating that more than 0.5 g of oral nicotine is required to kill an adult.”

Switching From Tobacco to Ejuice Could Reduce Hot Flashes

Smokers and hot flashesOh the dreaded hot flash – that rush of intense warmth that starts at your toes and ends at your scalp, that skin flushing, sweating, sleep disruption and increased heart rate that can leave you soaked and shaking. About 85% of all women will experience hot flashes at some point in their lives. And while we think of hot flashes as mainly affecting women, they can also affect men on hormone treatments for prostate cancer. Almost 75% of men on this therapy have hot flashes that disrupt their quality of life.

New study shows a connection between tobacco consumption and hot flashes

A recent study links smoking tobacco products to more intense hot flashes. The study followed approximately 800 menopausal women for seven years. Data showed that only 39 percent of the women who had never smoked tobacco had hot flashes, compared to 52 percent of ex-tobacco smokers and 62 percent of women who were still smoking cigarettes.

Another survey showed that women who had not smoked tobacco for over five years prior to the onset of menopause were much less likely to experience debilitating and/or frequent hot flashes than women who continued to use tobacco. And another research analysis showed that non- smokers definitely have less severe menopausal symptoms. All of these studies are in line with previous ones that showed using tobacco could interfere with hormones, neurotransmitters and other mechanisms linked to hot flashes.

Now we’re not suggesting that tobacco use causes or worsens menopausal hot flashes – that would be presumptive and irresponsible. But we are suggesting that it’s possible that switching from tobacco products to vaping e-juice just might help reduce current or future menopausal symptoms including hot flashes.

And consider the perks of e-juice we can defend as factual – so many delicious flavours to choose from, clean and fresh smelling skin, hair and clothes, no more nicotine film on your walls and windows … not to mention the money you’ll save if you switch from tobacco to vaping.

What do you have to lose? Maybe it’s those annoying hot flashes!

The post Switching From Tobacco to Ejuice Could Reduce Hot Flashes appeared first on Vapor Jedi Eliquid and Vape Accessories.

Which Drip Tip Material Produces a Neutral Taste?

Above: The high-end Royale Drip Tip by 2 Puffs is made of 304 stainless steel. It has a 510 connector on its bottom. Image via Vapor Jedi.

A drip tip is more than a mouthpiece for your atomizer. Vapers who are old enough to remember second-generation e-cigs will tell you a drip tip is an ingenuous invention. It cuts the time you spend dripping nicotine juice into your RDA because you don’t need to remove the head to insert the dropper into atomizer and coat the coil with your favorite e-liquid.

Drip tips are made of different materials, such as thermal-resistant plastic, hand blown glass, ceramic and stainless steel. Vapers say the material and length of the drip tip will affect the flavor and temperature of each drag.

You will get a different flavour with different tips. Factors affecting flavour include: Tip material, bore size, bore shape, inlet hole size, outlet hole size, tip length, tip weight, tip surface area. [It’s] not a comprehensive list, but almost all of them seem to affect flavour.

Some people say ceramic and stainless steel drip tips provide the best flavor while others say Pyrex glass is simply the best because it’s “almost entirely chemically neutral in a vaping environment.”

Above: The Royal Goblet Drip Tip by Vape Smith Philippines is a wide-bore type made of stainless steel. It’s made for Castle RDAs and other systems that use 510 connectors. Image via Vapor Jedi.

One of the threads at The Vapers Shed forum mentioned the following materials as neutral tasting: stainless steel (particularly 316 and 304), titanium (surgical grade), brass (naval or marine grade), stone, ceramic, and glass (either Pyrex or Borsilicate).
If it’s made of glass, the drip tip must be all glass because the flavor may not be neutral if it’s on an aluminium holder, for example.

Materials that may affect the flavor of the e-juice to some extent include: aluminium, thermoplastic known as Acetal Homopolymer or by its popular trade name of Delrin, acrylic, several types of wood, and rubber. In some cases, drip tips with Teflon coating end up producing metallic tasting vapes.

The following text from a Vape Ranks article describes the drip tip best:

Also known as a mouth piece, the drip tip comes in various shapes and sizes, and can be made out of different materials, like stainless steel, aluminum, plastic or ceramic. The material from which a drip tip is manufactured as well as its length greatly influences the temperature of the vapor produced by an electronic
cigarette. Steel drip tips, for example, cool off the vapor as it passes through it, but long plastic drip tips are also known to deliver cooler vapor, because of the distance it travels to reach the mouth.

Drip tips are best used on rebuildable atomizers. E-cigarettes like the Evod have drip tips, but they’re not replaceable. Some drip tips are short while others are long. You preference on the temperature of your vapes will determine whether a short drip tip is perfect for you or not.

Five Simple Vaping Tips for Cooling Down This Summer

summer-vaping-tips

Summer is now full blown throughout the northern hemisphere. Many weather analysts even say that temperatures would be above normal for places like Whitehorse, Yellowknife, Edmonton, Vancouver and Saskatoon in Canada, and that there would be more precipitation in areas near Toronto.

Across the United States, summer temperatures will be warmer than normal in all regions except parts of the mid-Atlantic and Southwestern United States. Rainfall will be below normal in most of the continent’s midsection, which may reduce yields of corn, wheat, soybeans, and other crops grown within this area. The drought in much of California will likely continue as well, putting additional stress on our food supply.

In Canada, temperatures will be warmer than average except for Vancouver Island in Canada. However, rainfall will be above normal from the Maritimes westward through Ontario, slightly above normal in the Prairies, and at or below normal elsewhere.

So, what do you do to cope with these abrupt changes in weather? Because it’s warmer than usual, here are a few suggestions to help you cool down while vaping.

#1: Let’s start with the obvious solution: drink iced beverages while enjoying one of your favorite e-juice flavors.

The pleasure of vaping while drinking coffee is an offshoot of smoking cigarettes while sipping a latte or cappuccino. But, what do vapers drink in summer when it’s too hot outside? It turns out iced coffee is not the only good option. You can have a tumbler of mint iced tea, a tall refreshing glass of lemonade, or an ice-cold beer – it doesn’t matter what flavor or brand you choose.

#2: Choose an e-juice flavor that contains mint, peppermint, spearmint, eucalyptus or any menthol.

Peppermint essential oil contains significantly more menthol than spearmint or eucalyptus, but the choice of oil depends on your preferences. Some people like the scent of spearmint more than peppermint, or vice versa. All of these oils that contain menthol can help ease headaches and body pains. They’re also stimulants that can interrupt your sleep or prevent you from relaxing completely and falling asleep.

Rather than use essential oils, which must be diluted before mixing, try using hydrosols of these menthol ingredients.

A hydrosol is the aromatic water that remains after producing an essential oil via steam or water distillation. Some plants are specifically distilled for the resulting hydrosol instead of the hydrosol being simply a byproduct of the distillation.

Hydrosols are gently aromatic, soothing and are a wonderful addition to room mists and body sprays intended to help keep you cool and refreshed. Unlike essential oils that should be diluted prior to application to the skin, hydrosols are water soluble, are much more gentle than their essential oil counterparts and can be used directly on the skin without further dilution.

#3: If you’re planning to vape outdoors, choose a spot that’s protected by a large umbrella or a very leafy tree.

Vaping outside is a fine idea. Who knows, a breeze may blow through now and then to cool you off. And, a day at the beach isn’t complete without your vaping gear. However, vaping your favorite minty e-juice doesn’t help at all when you allow your hardware to get exposed to heat directly. Mods tend to overheat and batteries were known to melt when left steaming under the sun too long.

E-cigs all have one thing in common: they contain lithium ion batteries of one type or another. When heated past 100º F (38 C), the lithium ions in these batteries begin to form the metal itself, damaging the cell. As a result, the battery will hold progressively less and less charge. If you’ve been leaving your vaping equipment out in the direct sun, or inside a hot vehicle, don’t be surprised when the battery seems to go dead faster than before. Worse yet, if lithium ion batteries get REALLY hot, like in excess of 120º F, they can “go thermal,” meaning they rupture and explode!

#4: Bring along some ice in a cooler and store your e-liquid bottles in there.

Many e-juices contain miniscule amounts of table sugar or sucrose. The sugars and nicotine in e-liquids break down faster in the heat. Most e-juices turn dark when exposed to direct sunlight. This chemical process is called the Maillard Reaction.

Even though sucrose is not a reducing sugar, it easily breaks up into fructose and glucose when heated, and these take part in the Maillard reaction. When a sugar is applied to a surface that is exposed to heat, there will be a fine line between caramelization, which involves only sugars, and the formation of Maillard products. If the surface contains proteins or amino acids, both caramelization and Maillard products will be observed.

A typical temperature range of 230 to 340°F (110–170°C) is often cited as ideal for the Maillard reaction to proceed in the normal time frame.

Even when it’s just warm outside, don’t be surprised to see your e-juice slowly take on a darker hue the longer you are outdoors.

Contrary to popular belief, the Maillard reaction will also occur at lower temperatures. In vintage Champagne, autolyzed (inactive) yeast and sugars react to form Maillard products that yield a characteristic flavor profile. This reaction takes place in the cool chalk cellars of the Champagne district in France, where the temperature remains constant at 48 to 54°F (9–12°C) year round. Because of the low temperature, a much longer reaction time is needed, so the characteristic Maillard-influenced flavor is found only in aged Champagnes. If the temperature is increased, the reaction will proceed more quickly.

#5: Drink lots of water or juice to prevent dehydration.

Many people have mentioned this before: vaping can dehydrate you. Because it’s summer, you lose more fluids in your body through sweat. Avoid any problems with your health by drinking lots of water or juice this summer.

These tips aren’t all inclusive when it comes to cooling down on a hot summer’s day. Lots of people enjoy going to the beach or taking a dip in the swimming pool. Others are lucky to have an air-conditioning system at home or at the workplace. Whatever trick you’ve got up your sleeve this summer, make sure you’re vaping safely.

Five Very Useful Apps That Vapers Couldn’t Live Without

The rising popularity of vaping has prompted many blogs and forums to produce web and mobile apps that cater to all kinds of vapers and their need for accurate information. Those who are passionate about re-building their drip and tank atomizers use these apps to play around with the numbers until they found the right set of measurements for an optimal coil build.

MistHub Ohms Law Calculator

Image: MistHub’s Ohm’s Law Calculator

An Ohm’s Law and Vape Safety Calculator

MistHub created a Basic Ohm’s Law calculator with color-coded boxes for the four variables: orange for Resistance (Ohms), blue for Current (Amps), yellow for Power (Watts), and green for Voltage (Volts). The calculator is easy to use. Just enter the values of any two variables, and click ‘Calculate’ to find the values of the two other variables.

A Pie Chart of the Twelve Formulas of Ohm’s Law

The overlapping relationships between power, voltage, current and resistance are best defined by the twelve mathematical formulas of Ohm’s Law. They’re presented in this beautiful pie chart by MistHub in a clean, orderly and visually attractive way.

MistHub Ohm's Law Chart

Image: MistHub’s Ohm’s Law Chart

Apparently, each of the color-coded quadrants belongs to one of the measurable elements of Ohm’s Law. They’re individually marked by a letter (P, E, I and R), the name of the element (power, voltage, current and resistance), and the units of measurement they use (watts, volts, amps and ohms). A trio of equations also occupy each of the quadrants. Each of the three equations can solve the value of each variable.

These formulas aren’t that difficult to solve using a pen and blank sheets of paper. You don’t even need a calculator to solve the square root of a simple number, such as 9 or 16.

The Coil Wrapping Calculator

Millions of RBA users around the world depend on the Coil Wrapping Calculator to provide correct mathematical and electrical measurements for an optimal coil setup for a drip or tank atomizer. This calculator has a simple and an advanced version.

simple-coil-wrapping-calculator

Image: Screenshot of Simple Coil Wrapping Calculator

The simple version provides the essential data, such as the total length of wire to use, the resistance of each coil, and the number of full or half wraps in each coil, in a quick and efficient way. Users may specify the inner diameter and the total leg length of each coil, but they can’t adjust the wire resistance value per mm or in, the wrap spacing for building micro/nano coils, and the resistance wire length for each coil in multi-coil setups.

Advanced Coil Wrapping Calculator

Image: Screenshot of Advanced Coil Wrapping Calculator

Clicking the ‘Advanced’ button beside the ‘reset’ button expands the whole calculator and shows additional fields where users can adjust the numbers. This version of the coil wrapping calculator provides a closer look into the wires you’re planning to use in building and the custom coils you wanted to build. Specific measurements, such as the width, length and neutral axis diameter of each coil or the surface area, density and volume of the resistance wire used for each coil, are displayed in a separate area farthest to the right.

This online tool was developed with an international audience in mind. All numerical values have been set in millimeters, by default, because the International System of Units (SI) or metric system of measurement is now recognized and used by every country in the world (except for the United States, Liberia and Burma). If you’d rather compute the lengths, diameters, widths and other units of measurement using the imperial system, then you have the option to do so.

This one-of-a-kind web-based app is available for free on the Steam Engine website along with other online tools that are of great practical value to vapers.

Mod Range Calculator

It seems Steam-engine.org has become one of the many go-to sites for vapers because of the unique tools they provide on their website. No other vaping-related website has a Mod Range Calculator that figures out “the optimal resistance range for your advanced personal vaporizer, or also known as regulated or variable voltage/variable power (wattage) mod, based on its maximum output current, voltage and power.”

mod range calculator

Image: Screenshot of Steam Engine’s Mod Range Calculator

The makers of this calculator left the following points for users to remember:

  • With most VV/VW mods, a low resistance is not required for high power output, so the minimum resistance may be less important than you think.
  • At the median resistance, the mod should be operating well within its voltage limit, as well as its current limit. If you are unsure about the quality of your circuitry, this resistance may be the safest bet for achieving maximum power.
  • The maximum resistance usually gives you the widest adjustment range.
  • Between the median and the maximum resistance, there is a sweet spot of sorts, where many mods will give you a good balance of power and adjustability without overburdening your circuit board.

You’ll notice that the calculator uses APV Presets. You select the brand and type of e-cigarette you have from a drop-down menu of different brands and types of advanced personal vaporizers. Once you select an option, the calculator immediately fills up with data.

Most of the data provided, such as the maximum wattage, maximum voltage, and current amp limit, come from product descriptions on the packaging and on the manufacturer’s website.

However, some of the information may not be reliable or accurate. The calculator’s developer is the first to point out that many manufacturers tend to exaggerate the specs of their products while others don’t even publish the limitations of their products. And so, measurable data and qualitative feedback were collected from consumer-generated and professional product reviews and from opinions shared in forums and blog comments.

It’s also important to remember that individual mods may vary in quality of hardware and level of performance, even when they’re from the same manufacturer. If you wanted to know more how this calculator works or you have more accurate data on specific brands and types of APVs, click the ‘How It Works’ link at the bottom. The link has a javascript code that expands a hidden text-filled portion of the page.

Battery Amp Limit Calculator and Other Tools

The vaping community of KritikalMass has made the Battery Amp Limit Calculator and other similar tools on their website available to all vapers around the world for free. The calculators were designed to provide immediate and accurate electrical measurements to everyone who needs them. It’s also useful for vapers who wanted to use rebuildable atomizers with their unprotected/unregulated mechanical mods.

The other calculators look simple and plain, and they’re not that complicated to use. One calculator finds the total amps and watts that were consumed by your device. The other calculator figures out the total amps and volts that were drawn from your battery.

As you scroll down, you’ll find this well-organized chart of brand-specific battery amp limits. Each column shows standard computations for the continuous and maximum discharge amps, the safe ohm to run, and the C Rating for each battery’s brand name and mAh. Use this as a general guide to selecting the right brand, type and size of e-cigarette batteries.

Using Vaporized Medicinal Botanicals in E-Liquids

fresh mint leaves
Fresh mint leaves. Mint and peppermint are commonly used to enhance flavor and add color to food and drinks.

You may be more adventurous than I am in trying out new flavors of e-juice or testing new tech for cool vapes. But, this time I’m standing out there, front and center, and with my fist raised high. I think it’s time that the e-juice manufacturing sector looks into the possible advantages of using botanical extracts to enhance the flavor and scent of their e-liquids or to create a new line of herbal e-juices.

What May Be Good and Bad About This Idea

For many centuries, herbal medicine has been using plant extracts in their liquid and powder forms to take advantage of their healing properties. Common ways of giving the medicine are the following:

(1) orally: in controlled dosages, or by mixing it in your drink or food;
(2) topically: by making a curative paste and spreading it on the affected area;
(3) inhalation: by mixing the powder or liquid into a large pot or tub of very hot water.

Botanicals not only offer some therapeutic effects, but also some interesting additions to the spectrum of e-juice flavors. Liquid extracts and essential oils derived from the leaves, barks and flowers of the plants are very ideal in producing e-liquids for therapeutic use.

Adding tinctures or extracts of medicinal plants to e-juice has its downsides. The liquid extract derived from the flowers, leaves, barks and roots of the plant has a purer composition and, therefore, it has more potent therapeutic effects. Mixing the herbal liquid with the e-juice dilutes and weakens it. What’s more, the healing properties of most herbs tend to leach and disappear after they’ve been processed and exposed to extreme heat.

Commonly Vaporized Medicinal Botanicals

Chamomile has been a major component of herbal medicine since ancient times. The scent of chamomile promotes general relaxation of the body and mind, and also relieves pain, muscle tension and stress. This medicinal herb is naturally abundant in phytochemicals and other bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. It’s also known as a natural remedy for insomnia because of its mild sedative effect.

chamomile-flowers

A research article published in 2010 in the Molecular Medicine Reports briefly described some healthcare preparations for chamomile that included the following:

Inhalation of the vaporized essential oils derived from chamomile flowers is recommended to relieve anxiety, general depression. Chamomile oil is a popular ingredient of aromatherapy and hair care.

The Wax Factory blog suggests that ex-smokers who are transitioning from tobacco use to vaping will benefit the most from drinking chamomile tea or inhaling the scent of its flowers.

The vapors of the flowers of chamomile are used to treat emotional problems like depression and nervousness. Many people find it extremely calming, as it removes their headaches. If you are feeling irritable and nervous, a session of chamomile vapors can do wonders for your mental well being. To increase the efficiency of aromatherapy when trying to reduce anxiety and stress, you can mix chamomile with other herbs.

Chamomile is just one of many botanicals that have been vaporized and used as medicinal ingredients of an herbal vape. The following is an abbreviated list of commonly vaporized medicinal botanicals, published by Integrative Oncology Essentials:

  • Damiana: good for stress reduction
  • Eucalyptus: a tiny amount of eucalyptus juice or oil is enough to relieve sinus and lung congestion, cough and asthma
  • Green Tea: drinking this tea offers pain relief and remedy for some digestion problems, such as stomach pain, gas, bloating, and nausea
  • Lavender: relieves muscle pain, migraines and other headaches, remedy for indigestion, reduces stress
  • Lemon Balm: helps with insomnia, reduces stress and pain, relieves muscle spasms and cramps
  • Passion Flower: a mild sedative, helps with insomnia
  • Peppermint: used as remedy for some digestion problems, such as stomach pain, gas, bloating, and nausea; a good pain reliever (especially for headaches)
  • Raspberry Leaf: relieves nausea and upset stomach
  • Sage: reduces sweating, aids in digestion
  • Spearmint: aids in digestion, promotes relaxation, and relieves symptoms of respiratory problems (bronchitis, asthma, sinusitis)
  • Thyme: thyme oil vapor fights infection in the noses, sinuses and lungs; relieves muscle spasms; works as an expectorant

When mixing a pure essential oil to your e-juice, measure a small amount of the oil and dilute it with distilled water in a separate container. Slowly add the diluted essential oil into your e-juice solution. Avoid using concentrated essential oils, which emit a very strong odor and can cause skin and eye irritations. Most importantly, beware of volatile compounds in botanical extracts and oils. Some plants have strong chemicals that may burn the skin or cause dizziness, nausea and headaches.